What Are the Divine Scriptures?
Name of Questioner: Tom
Date: 17-2-2015 04:43:25 PM
Consultant: Ask About Islam Editorial Staff
What are the divine Scriptures that were revealed by Allah? Are they different from the Qur’an? What do they have in common? Why do we have to believe in these books, besides the Qur’an?
Thank you for your question.
As Muslims we have iman (faith) in Allah’s divine Scriptures; we believe that Allah (Exalted be He) revealed heavenly books to His messengers in order to convey them to humankind.
These books contain nothing but the truth; they do not contain any falsehood. In them is the message of the Oneness of Allah (tawheed): that there is no creator, administrator, or owner except Him, that all worship should be directed to Him and none else, and that to Him belong all excellent Names and Attributes. He is nothing like His creation, and none can be compared to Him. Allah says:
Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance (justice) that mankind may keep up justice. (Al-Hadid 57:25)
Some of those books are the following:
1- The Scriptures of Ibrahim (Abraham, peace be upon him) and Musa (Moses, peace be upon him.: The Quran has given a brief insight about the religious basic principles found in these scriptures. Allah says:
Or is he not informed with what is in the Scriptures of Musa? And of Ibrahim who fulfilled (or conveyed) all that (what Allah ordered him to do or convey)? That no burdened person (with sins) shall bear the burden (sins) of another. And that man can have nothing but what he [himself] strove for. And that his deeds will be seen (in the Hereafter). Then he will be recompensed with a full and the best recompense. (An-Najm 53:36-41)
2- The Tawrah: The Tawrah (Torah) is the Sacred Book which was revealed to Musa. Allah says:
Verily, We did send down the Tawrah (to Musa), therein was guidance and light, by which the Prophets, who submitted themselves to Allah’s Will, judged the Jews. And the rabbis and the priests (too judged the Jews by the Tawrah after those Prophets) for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah’s Book, and they were witnesses thereto. Therefore fear not men but fear Me (O Jews) and sell not My Verses for a miserable price. And whosoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, such are the disbelievers. (Al-Ma’idah 5:44)
3- The Zaboor: The Zaboor is the Book which was revealed to Dawud (David, peace be upon him). Allah says:
…and to Dawood We gave the Zaboor. (An-Nisaa’ 4:163)
4- The Injeel: The Injeel is the Sacred Book which was revealed to `Isa (Jesus, peace be upon him). Allah says:
And in their footsteps, We sent `Isa, son of Maryam (Mary), confirming the Tawrah that had come before him. And We gave him the Injeel, in which was guidance and light and confirmation of the Tawrah that had come before it, a guidance and an admonition for the Allah-fearing. (Al-Ma’idah 5:46)
A Muslim must believe in all the Heavenly Books. He must believe that they are from Allah, but he is required not act upon or follow them, for they were revealed for a specific time and people.
The Quran has explained some of the teachings which were found in the Tawrah and the Injeel. Allah says that from the things they mentioned was the prophecy of Muhammad (peace be upon him):
…and My Mercy embraces all things. That (Mercy) I shall ordain for those who are Allah-fearing, and give zakah; and those who believe in Our ayat; Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write (Muhammad) whom they find written with them in the Tawrah and the Injeel, - he commands them all good things; and forbids them from of all kinds of evil; he allows them as lawful all good and lawful things, and prohibits them as unlawful all evil and unlawful things; and he releases them from their heavy burdens (of Allah’s Covenant), and from the fetters (bindings) that were upon them. (Al-A`raf 7:156)
5- The Quran: One must hold the following beliefs concerning it:
a- One must believe that the Quran is the exact and literal Speech of Allah which Jibreel (peace be upon him) brought to Muhammad in a clear Arabic language:
Which the trustworthy Rooh (Jibreel/Gabriel) has brought down; Upon your heart (O Muhammad that you may be (one) of the warners, In a plain Arabic language. (As-Shu`araa’ 26:193-195)
b- One must believe that the Quran is the last of the heavenly books, giving truth to the previous books in their message of the Tawheed of Allah and the obligation to worship and obey Him Alone. Allah abrogated all the previous books by the Qur’an. Allah says:
(It is) He Who has sent down the Book (the Qur’an) to you (Muhammad) with truth, confirming what came before it. And He sent down the Tawrah and the Injeel. Aforetime, as a guidance to mankind, And He sent down the Furqan (The Criterion) (of judgment between right and wrong; this Qur`an). (Aal-Imran 3:3-4)
c- One must believe that the Quran embodies all divine teachings. Allah says:
This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as a religion. (Al-Ma’idah 5:3)
d- One must believe that it was revealed to all of humanity, and not to a specific nation or specific time period unlike the previous heavenly books. Allah says:
And We have not sent you (O Muhammad) except to all of humanity, as a giver of glad tidings and a warner, but most people know not. (Saba’ 34:28)
e- One must believe that Allah has protected the Quran from all types of distortion, whether addition, deletion, substitution or interpolation:
Remembrance (the Qur’an) and surely, it is We Who shall guard it (from distortion). (Al-Hijr 15:9)
We hope this answers your question.
The answer is excerpted from Abdul-Rahman Al Sheha’s How to Become a Muslim.