Despite the bitter disagreement among the followers of the three divine religions over Jesus – if he is a god, demi-god, prophet or a common person, they still agree that he was a son. However, they disagree once again over the being of whom he was a son.
As far as the adherents of Judaism are concerned, they ascribe Jesus to illegitimate birth, magic, and shameful death. They believe that God, as the creator of time, space, energy and matter, is beyond them, and cannot be born, die, or literally have a son. Judaism teaches that it is heretical for any man to claim to be God, part of God, or the literal son of God. The Jerusalem Talmud (Ta’anit 2:1) states explicitly: “If a man claims to be God, he is a liar.”
For two thousand years, Jews rejected the claim that Jesus fulfilled the messianic prophecies of the Hebrew Bible, as well as the dogmatic claims about him made by the church fathers – that he was born of a virgin, the son of God, part of a divine Trinity, and was resurrected after his death.
According to Jews, the Messiah must be descended on his father’s side from King David (see Genesis 49:10 and Isaiah 11:1). Even though Jesus could be the product of a virgin birth and had no father, he could not have fulfilled the messianic requirement of being descended on his father’s side from King David!
When it comes to the followers of Christianity, Jesus is seen as a son of various beings which may be deemed contradictory by many other people. In the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as: “Son of God”, “Son of man”, “Son of Mary”, “Son of the Blessed”, “Son of the Highest” and “Son of the Father”.
In the New Testament, we come to know that Jesus was also the child of the Holy Ghost. The story of his birth goes as follows:
Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost. Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a public example, was minded to put her away privily. But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins. Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us. Then Joseph being raised from sleep did as the angel of the Lord had bidden him, and took unto him his wife: And knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn son: and he called his name JESUS. (ST. MATTHEW 18-25)
The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, was but a messenger of Allah and His word which He directed to Mary and a spirit [created at a command] from Him. (An-Nisaa’ 4:171)
The Qur’an relates the story of Jesus’ birth as follows:
And mention, [O Muhammad], in the Book [the story of] Mary, when she withdrew from her family to a place toward the east. And she took, in seclusion from them, a screen. Then We sent to her Our Angel, and he represented himself to her as a well-proportioned man. She said, “Indeed, I seek refuge in the Most Merciful from you, [so leave me], if you should be fearing of Allah. He said, “I am only the messenger of your Lord to give you [news of] a pure boy.” She said, “How can I have a boy while no man has touched me and I have not been unchaste?” He said, “Thus [it will be]; your Lord says, ‘It is easy for Me, and We will make him a sign to the people and a mercy from Us. And it is a matter [already] decreed. So she conceived him, and she withdrew with him to a remote place. And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm tree. She said, “Oh, I wish I had died before this and was in oblivion, forgotten.” But he called her from below her, “Do not grieve; your Lord has provided beneath you a stream. And shake toward you the trunk of the palm tree; it will drop upon you ripe, fresh dates. So eat and drink and be contented. And if you see from among humanity anyone, say, ‘Indeed, I have vowed to the Most Merciful abstention, so I will not speak today to [any] man. ” Then she brought him to her people, carrying him. They said, “O Mary, you have certainly done a thing unprecedented. O sister of Aaron, your father was not a man of evil, nor was your mother unchaste.” So she pointed to him. They said, “How can we speak to one who is in the cradle a child?” [Jesus] said, “Indeed, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the Scripture and made me a prophet. And He has made me blessed wherever I am and has enjoined upon me prayer and zakah as long as I remain alive. And [made me] dutiful to my mother, and He has not made me a wretched tyrant. And peace is on me the day I was born and the day I will die and the day I am raised alive.” That is Jesus, the son of Mary – the word of truth about which they are in dispute. It is not [befitting] for Allah to take a son; exalted is He! When He decrees an affair, He only says to it, “Be,” and it is. [Jesus said], “And indeed, Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him. That is a straight path.” Then the factions differed [concerning Jesus] from among them so woe to those who disbelieved – from the scene of a tremendous Day. (Maryam 19:16-37)
Being fatherless in Islam, Jesus is often referred to in the Islamic scriptures as “the son of Mary”. Jesus is mentioned in the Qur`an about 35 times. He is called “Jesus, the son of Mary”, “Messiah, the son of Mary”, “the son of Mary”, “Jesus” and “Messiah”. Out of the stated 35 positions, he is referred to as “the son of Mary” about 23 times to assert the Islamic attitude towards Christ as a human being who was born by a woman without a father for him to be a sign to people. In the Qur’an, there is a verse reading:
And We made the son of Mary and his mother a sign and sheltered them within a high ground having level [areas] and flowing water. (Al-Mu’minun 23:50)
Finally, we conclude that Jews, in the best-case scenario, consider Jesus a common person born by a common woman. Christians mostly think that he is the son of God. Muslims believe that he was a Messenger and Word and Spirit from Allah and that he had a mother but no father as a miracle substantiating the omnipotence of Allah, the Almighty.